"In 1796, British physician Edward Jenner successfully tested the first smallpox vaccine by injecting a young boy with a milder, smallpox-like disease (cow pox) that typically affected cows. He wrote to the Royal Society of Medicine detailing his experiment, but they rejected his paper.
Jenner tested the vaccine on 22 more patients and self-published his results in a pamphlet in 1798, which was met with mixed reviews. But news of the vaccine quickly spread after another doctor, Henry Cline, successfully replicated Jenner's results. No advisory committee existed to test the safety and efficacy of the vaccine at the time, so Jenner was free to provide the vaccine to anyone who requested it.
Smallpox became the first infectious disease to be completely eradicated by a vaccine in 1980, following advancements in needle technology and a push for mass vaccinations by the World Health Organization. That centuries-long endeavor paved the way for many more vaccines to come, and many more public-health successes leading up to the current efforts to quell the coronavirus pandemic."
Info above is from https://www.businessinsider.com/how-coronavirus-vaccine-development-compares-to-other-shots-in-history-2020-11 It was accessed on September 28, 2021.
Questions for all students:
1. Study the key at the top of this graphic. Why do you think vaccine development often follows this order?
2. This graphic does not include the first ever vaccine. In what year was it first tested? Was it tested on an animal or a human?
3. Based on what you read above this graphic, which vaccine development most resembles the development and testing of the smallpox vaccine?
4. Based on the graphic, which diseases have been eradicated by a vaccine?
5. Based on the graphic, which disease has had the longest time between trials and rollout? Which vaccine has had the shortest time?
6. Why do you think the time for trials of some vaccines is so brief?
7. Have you ever known someone to have Typhoid Fever or Yellow Fever? Why do you think so?
8. Why do you think some vaccines have reached the rollout phase, but not eradication?
9. In what year was the influenza vaccine first tried on humans?
10. Approximately how many years was the influenza vaccine tested before rollout?
11. Around what year was the polio vaccine rolled out? Approximately how many years were there between rollout and eradication?
12. What's a question you have about this graphic?